Rulesets

The Functional Accessibility Evaluator and AInspector Sidebar use the OpenAjax Evaluation Library and Rulesets. The ruleset section of FAE provides details of the Openajax Evaluation Library rules and rulesets.

HTML4 Legacy Techniques

WCAG 2.0 Level A and AA requirements primarily using HTML4 techniques, but allows HTML5 and ARIA accessibility techniques.

Evaluation of W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 Level A and AA conformance using HTML4 accessibility techniques, but allows for the use of HTML5 and ARIA techniques. ARIA landmarks are NOT required, but if used must follow landmark and sectioning element requirements as outlined in HTML5 and ARIA. The ruleset does NOT require the use of ARIA widget roles for identifying and describing interactive elements (e.g. popup menus, grids, trees, etc...) that cannot be not described by the native semantics of HTML4 and HTML5 form control and link elements. This means the developer will need to do more manual checking and have a high level understanding of assistive technology to describe widgets typically using offscreen text and/or small images (e.g. with ALT text) to define and manage the roles, properties and states of interactive elements.

  • Version: 1.1.0
  • Total Rules: 122
  • Required Rules: 81
  • Recommended Rules: 41

HTML5 and ARIA Techniques

WCAG 2.0 Level A and AA requirements using ARIA and HTML5 accessibility features.

Evaluation of W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 Level A and AA conformance using HTML5 and ARIA accessibility techniques. ARIA Landmarks are required for the identification and labeling of the sections of content on a web page. The ruleset requires the use of ARIA widget roles for identifying and describing interactive elements (e.g. popup menus, grids, trees, etc...) that cannot be not described by the native semantics of HTML5 form control and links elements.

  • Version: 1.1.0
  • Total Rules: 132
  • Required Rules: 120
  • Recommended Rules: 12

Ruleset Comparison

Guideline 1.1 Text Alternatives

1.1.1 Non-text Content (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Image 1 Images must have alt text Images Required Required
Image 2 Alt text must summarize purpose Images Required Required
Image 3 Alt text must not include filename Images Required Required
Image 4 (English) Alt text no more than 100 characters Images Recommended Recommended
Image 5 Verify image is decorative Images Required Required
Image 6 Long description for complex images Images Required Required
Image 7 Use MathML for mathematical expressions Images Required Required

Guideline 1.2 Time-based Media

1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded) (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Audio 1 audio must have alternative Audio/Video Required Required
Audio 2 object for audio must have alternative Audio/Video Required Required
Audio 3 embed for audio must have alternative Audio/Video Required Required
Video 1 video for video only must have alternative Audio/Video Required Required
Video 2 object for video only must have alternative Audio/Video Required Required
Video 3 embed for video only must have alternative Audio/Video Required Required

1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded) (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Video 4 video must have caption Audio/Video Required Required
Video 5 object for video must have captions Audio/Video Required Required
Video 6 embed for video must have captions Audio/Video Required Required

1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded) (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Video 7 video element must have audio description. Audio/Video Required Required
Video 8 object for video must have audio description. Audio/Video Required Required
Video 9 embed for video must have audio description Audio/Video Required Required

Guideline 1.3 Adaptable

1.3.1 Info and Relationships (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Heading 5 Headings must be properly nested Headings Required Required
Heading 6 Headings must have text content Headings Recommended Recommended
Heading 7 First landmark heading h2 Headings - Recommended
Heading 8 Headings nested in landmarks Headings - Required
Landmark 10 navigation landmark: restrictions Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 11 main landmark: must be top-level Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 12 contentinfo landmark: must be top-level Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 13 contentinfo landmark: restrictions Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 14 search landmark: restrictions Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 15 form landmark: restrictions Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 16 region landmark must have accessible name Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 17 Landmarks must be uniquely identifiable Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 18 Landmarks must identify content regions Landmarks Required Required
Landmark 19 complementary landmark: must be top level Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 2 All content must be contained in landmarks Landmarks - Required
Landmark 8 banner landmark: must be top-level Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 9 banner landmark: restrictions Landmarks Recommended Required
List 1 Use semantic markup for lists Styling/Content Required Required
Role 1 main element role semantics. Styling/Content Recommended Required
Role 10 Overriding h1-h6 role semantics Headings Recommended Required
Role 2 body element role semantics. Styling/Content Recommended Required
Role 4 article element role semantics Styling/Content Recommended Required
Role 5 section element role semantics Styling/Content Recommended Required
Role 6 Do not override nav element semantics. Styling/Content Recommended Required
Role 7 aside element role semantics Styling/Content Recommended Required
Role 8 Do not override header element role. Styling/Content Recommended Required
Role 9 Do not override footer element role. Styling/Content Recommended Required
Table 1 Data cells must have row/column headers Tables Required Required
Table 3 Data tables must have description Tables Recommended Recommended
Table 4 Data tables must have unique names Tables Required Required
Table 5 Identify table markup as data or layout Tables Recommended Required
Table 6 Header cells must be th elements Tables Recommended Required
Table 7 Data cells must use headers attribute Tables Required Required
Table 8 Name must be different than description Tables - Required

1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Layout 1 Layout tables must have meaningful sequence Tables Required Required
Layout 2 Do not nest layout tables Styling/Content Recommended Recommended
Layout 3 Verify aria-flowto supports reading order Styling/Content Required Required
Order 1 Reading order: CSS positioning Styling/Content Required Required

1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Sensory 1 Not only shape, size and location Styling/Content Required Required

Guideline 1.4 Distinguishable

1.4.1 Use of Color (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Color 2 Use of color Styling/Content Required Required

1.4.2 Audio Control (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Audio 4 Pause, stop or mute audio Audio/Video Required Required

1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum) (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Color 1 Text must exceed CCR threshold Styling/Content Required Required

1.4.4 Resize text (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Resize 1 Resize text content Styling/Content Required Required

Guideline 2.1 Keyboard Accessible

2.1.1 Keyboard (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Keyboard 1 Widget roles require keyboard support Keyboard Support Required Required
Keyboard 2 Interactive functionality must be keyboard operable Keyboard Support Required Required

2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Keyboard 3 No keyboard trap Keyboard Support Required Required

Guideline 2.2 Enough Time

2.2.1 Timing Adjustable (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Timing 1 Control time limits Timing Required Required

2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Timing 2 Control moving, blinking or auto-updating content Timing Required Required

Guideline 2.3 Seizures

2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
HTML 2 Replace marquee elements Styling/Content Required Required
Timing 3 Flashing limits Timing Required Required

Guideline 2.4 Navigable

2.4.1 Bypass Blocks (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Bypass 1 Skip to main content link Keyboard Support Recommended Recommended
Frame 1 frame must have accessible name Styling/Content Required Required
Frame 2 iframe must have accessible name Styling/Content Required Required
Heading 1 Page must have h1 element Headings Recommended Recommended
Landmark 1 main landmark: at least one Landmarks - Required
Landmark 3 navigation landmark: at least one Landmarks - Required
Landmark 4 banner landmark: identifies branding content Landmarks - Required
Landmark 5 banner landmark: no more than one Landmarks Recommended Required
Landmark 6 contentinfo landmark: identifies admin content Landmarks - Required
Landmark 7 contentinfo landmark: no more than one Landmarks Recommended Required

2.4.2 Page Titled (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Title 1 title must identify website and page Site Navigation Required Required
Title 2 h1 must match part of the title Site Navigation - -

2.4.3 Focus Order (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Focus 1 Focus order must be meaningful Keyboard Support Required Required

2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context) (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Link 1 Link text must describe the link target Links Required Required
Link 2 Link text must be unique Links Recommended Recommended

2.4.5 Multiple Ways (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Navigation 1 At least two ways of finding content Site Navigation Recommended Required

2.4.6 Headings and Labels (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Control 10 Labels must be unique Forms Required Required
Control 11 submit and reset buttons must be unique Forms Required Required
Heading 2 h1 must be in main or banner landmark Headings Recommended Recommended
Heading 3 Sibling headings must be unique Headings Recommended Recommended
List 2 Provide list labels when appropriate Styling/Content Recommended Recommended
Table 2 Data tables must have name Tables Recommended Recommended
Widget 12 Widget labels must be descriptive Widgets/Scripting Required Required

2.4.7 Focus Visible (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Focus 2 Focus must be visible Keyboard Support Required Required

Guideline 3.1 Readable

3.1.1 Language of Page (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Language 1 Page must use language code Styling/Content Required Required

3.1.2 Language of Parts (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Language 2 Identify language changes Styling/Content Required Required

Guideline 3.2 Predictable

3.2.1 On Focus (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Focus 3 Target focus must be in content window Links Required Required

3.2.2 On Input (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Focus 4 select must not change context Forms Required Required
Focus 5 Forms submitted using buttons Forms Required Required
Focus 6 checkbox/radio buttons changing context. Forms - -

3.2.3 Consistent Navigation (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Navigation 2 Consistent ordering of landmarks Site Navigation Recommended Required
Navigation 3 Consistent ordering of h1 and h2 labels Site Navigation Required Required

3.2.4 Consistent Identification (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Navigation 4 Consistent labeling of landmarks Site Navigation Recommended Required
Navigation 5 Consistent h1 and h2 page section labels Site Navigation Required Required

Guideline 3.3 Input Assistance

3.3.1 Error Identification (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Error 1 Information on invalid values Forms Required Required

3.3.2 Labels or Instructions (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Control 1 Form controls must have labels Forms Required Required
Control 2 Image button must have alt. content Forms Required Required
Control 3 Radio buttons must have grouping label Forms Required Required
Control 4 buttons must have content Forms Required Required
Control 6 label must reference control Forms Required Required
Control 7 label must have content Forms Required Required
Control 8 fieldset must have one legend Forms Required Required
Control 9 Verify title is the label. Forms Required Required

3.3.3 Error Suggestion (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Error 2 Required form controls Forms Required Required
Error 3 Required widgets Widgets/Scripting - Required
Error 4 Error correction suggestions Forms Required Required

3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data) (Level AA)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Error 5 Prevent errors Forms Required Required

Guideline 4.1 Compatible

4.1.1 Parsing (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Control 5 id must be unique Forms Required Required
HTML 1 Replace b and i elements Styling/Content - -

4.1.2 Name, Role, Value (Level A)

Rule ID Summary Rule Category HTML4 Legacy Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Role 11 li element group item semantics Styling/Content Recommended Required
Role 12 a[href] element role semantics Links Recommended Required
Role 13 select element role semantics Forms Required Required
Role 14 textarea element role semantics Forms Required Required
Role 3 ol and ul role grouping semantics Styling/Content Recommended Required
Widget 1 Widgets must have label Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 10 Value in range Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 11 Elements with event handlers must have roles Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 13 Remove widget roles Widgets/Scripting - -
Widget 14 Verify appropriate use of live region Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 2 onClick event handlers must have role Widgets/Scripting - Required
Widget 3 role must be valid Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 4 ARIA values must be valid Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 5 ARIA attribute must be defined Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 6 Widgets must have properties Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 7 Widgets must have child roles Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 8 Widgets must have parent Widgets/Scripting Required Required
Widget 9 Only one owner Widgets/Scripting Required Required